Full text: Elementarisierung im Schulbuch

an obstacle to the already started modernisation process in the Serbia of 80’s in 19" 
century, unlike Germany, where there had been a long dispute (until 1904)” on issues 
about who was to take the responsibility of financing primary and secondary schools, 
there was the agricultural character of the society, additionally burdened with the patri- 
archal attitude towards the education of female children, so the modern law on compul- 
sory primary education which, was passed in 1883” could not be effected entirely. It is 
important to stress that it was a good starting point for the measures that would be taken 
in the following two decades, no matter if the primary (with pre-school), secondary or 
tertiary education was in question. Simply, it was a preparation (the first phase) for the 
entrance into 20® century. That was „a new breath” for Serbia, which breathed education 
into it, as S. Novakovic said. 
Relationships between the Serbs and the Germans 
According to the archived sources, there were 12000 Germans living in Serbia at the 
beginning of 1905. Their participation in Belgrade social life was especially noticeable. 
It is best shown in the analysis of the percentage of Serbian German speaking popula- 
tion. For example, in 1852 there were only a few people in Belgrade who spoke German 
language. Fifty years after that, the German language was spoken in Belgrade in all the 
occasions: in the main pedestrian Zone, at that time the popular Knez Mihajolova Street, 
and in bookshops where books from Germany read by people from Belgrade with great 
attention prevailed. According to our findings, they also occupied an important place in 
private libraries. It was as much interesting in inns of the time whose owners kindly 
offered German newspapers to their guests. Serbian children could have enrolled the 
three schools for German children. Another important data should be added to it. „Bel- 
grades Tagblatt“, a favourite magazine among the teachers of the time, was being pub- 
lished in Belgrade up to 1905. A magazine from Petrograd called „Slovo” wrote about 
the great influence German culture had in Serbia. The editor of „Vedernje novosti” at 
that time a very popular and gladly read newspapers, reacted to these texts. In an article 
published on 16% November 1905 it was firmly said that „the Russians should sweep 
their own garden since poverty is not a problem for us”*. This polemic was not caused 
without reason. Information came from Belgrade to Petrograd via the diplomatic repre- 
sentative office of the time. The fact that there were three German schools with Serbian 
pupils in them in Belgrade contributed to that impression largely. The fact that ever since 
the middle of the 19* century numerous Serbian students were educated in Germany 
should not be neglected, which the Russian community was very well acquainted with. It 
all certainly raised additional doubts. 
 
?2 In that year the so-called School compromise was made which ended the dilemma about the co-financing 
education in village and town schools on the part of the state. See C. H. Beck, Handbuch der deutschen 
Bildungsgeschichte, 1870-1918, Von der Reichsgründung bis zum Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs, München, 
1985, 180-182. 
® Education Almanac of Laws and Regulations ‚1895, 20-40.) 
* See Veternje novosti no. 315 of 16 November 1905. 
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