Full text: Das Schulbuch zwischen Lehrplan und Unterrichtspraxis

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Comprehensive musicianship is a term used to describe the intradisciplinary study of 
music. The intent of the comprehensive musicianship approach is to integrate and syn- 
thesize all areas of music including music history, music literature, music theory, and 
performance/ pedagogy into a unified whole (Spearman, 1979; MENC, 1965). The inte- 
gration and synthesis of the various areas of music allows for a more logical and mean- 
ingful learning experience. This unified learning experience brings balance and focus to 
the disparate areas of music, allowing students to pursue and explore all aspects of music 
and their interrelationships (Willoughby, 1971b). 
The comprehensive musicianship approach is especially useful in the area of ensem- 
ble performance where the relationship of the music literature studied can be related to 
the theoretical systems, historical and stylistic periods from which the literature was 
composed. The comprehensive musicianship approach allows students to perform litera- 
ture with an understanding of the historical and theoretical aspects that served as guide- 
lines in the compositional process. Therefore, students gain a unified knowledge of mu- 
sic that assists them in developing a comprehensive musical understanding (Mark, 
1986). 
However, the teaching of comprehensive musicianship has not been widely accepted 
by the instrumental music education profession. Instrumental music educators have rela- 
tively ignored this approach except for the Hawaii Curriculum Project, Garofalo’s Blue- 
print for Band, programs in several school districts and universities, and a few doctoral 
dissertations (Grashel, 1993). 
Reasons for the rejection of comprehensive musicianship maybe: 
(1) administrative, community and parental pressure for performance as the only in- 
structional option, (2) fear that students will reject nonperformance activities as they are 
incorporated into the rehearsal and (3) lack of planning and rehearsal time for compre- 
hensive instruction to take place (Grashel, 1993). 
The rejection of comprehensive musicianship has also extended into the instructional 
materials used in teaching beginning instrumental music. Texter (1974) analyzed almost 
every known beginning band method book published through 1973 in terms of physical 
features, musical content and pedagogical content. Conclusions of the study indicated 
that beginning band method books did not reflect significant developments made by 
educational theorists to the music education profession in areas such as comprehensive 
musicianship and the teaching of ethnic music. 
In 1996, Heavner conducted a study to ascertain if current beginning band method 
books had incorporated principles of comprehensive musicianship as a result of new 
reforms in the educational system since 1974. Beginning band method books published 
from 1990 through 1994 were analyzed for principles of comprehensive musicianship 
and compared among themselves and with a theoretical comprehensive musicianship 
curriculum model. 
Results from the study indicated that all current beginning band method books mat- 
ched various categories of the theoretical comprehensive musicianship curriculum model 
and ‚one book, Standard of Excellence, matched the model in overall comprehensive 
musicianship scores. These findings were important because Texter’s study (1974) had 
shown that beginning band method books did not integrate principles of comprehensive 
musicianship into the teaching of beginning instrumental music (Heavner, 1996). 
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