Full text: Die Familie im Schulbuch

is designed as protean, it opens for being a female in a male model, and it could change 
into the two-Sex model towards a female in a female model. In both models the male 
body is the Stable with the Same Signs (penis and Scrotum) on the body. As gender re- 
Searches have accentuated, the Stable Sex of the man is a matter of the cultural and Social 
construction of gender neutrality (Korvajärvi 2001, Knudsen 2004b). The woman has a 
gender, whereas the man is genderless. 
Laqueur Shows that the interpretation of the one-Sex model can be connected to the 
power and legitimacy of fatherhood: „The one-Sex model can be read, I want to Suggest, 
as an exercise in preServing the Father, he who stands not only for order but for the very 
existence of civilization itself." (op.cit., S. 58). In my reading of the fatherhood, the 
family with the father in the centre as the Superior, points towards the patriarchal father 
in the one-Sex model. 
With the two-Sex model the male and female bodies are Seen as „horizontally ordered 
opposites" (op.cit., 10). In words and illustrations the bodies are read as Signs of two 
fundamentally different Sexes. The female and male genitalia are Separated, and the 
vagina gets a name of its own. The reproductive woman and motherhood become the 
focus of attention. This could be interpreted as equal-worth, and s8o it has been within 
parts of the women's movement around 1900 as well as in the 1970's feminist move- 
ment. In Laqueur's view the two-Sex model confirms the problematic and instability of 
the female body. The woman has the body that could change by naming it differently 
from the Stable male body. 
In the Separation of the Sexes the heterosexuality is pushed forward: „Thus in the two- 
Sex model, as before, the generative Substances in both men and women were believed to 
be produced only during intercourse" (op.cit., S. 184). The two Sexes are interpreted as 
opposites with female versus male, and with for example emotion versus reason, nature 
versus culture. In my view the transition from the one-Sex model to the two Sex-model 
Seems to make the Social and cultural gender of topical interest. It is not only a matter of 
biological Sexes and of mother- and fatherhood. Rather the mother and the woman as 
well as the father and the man are categorised as genders with Specific feminine and 
masculine values. In the nuclear family the woman's femininity becomes a characteristic 
of the present mother. The fatherhood could Still be concentrated on the patriarchal 
father, who could be named „the hegemonic masculinity* and the hegemonic father 
(Connell 1995). However, through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the image of 
the absent father is formed in the nuclear family (Shorter 1975). The absent father could 
Still be formed as the patriarchal father with hegemonic power. Fatherhood becomes 
rather powerful as „norms, values and structures" however (Johansson 2003, S. 26; my 
translation). The absent father is the working father. From the 1960's the absent father in 
the Nordic Societies is combined with the families without fathers. The father disappears 
into professional life and out of the nuclear family in the growing rate of divorces. The 
Single mother with the children and the Single man without the children appear in the 
Statistics. As a contrast to this development the caring father is highlighted as the new 
fatherhood in the late twentieth century (Johansson, op.cit.). The caring father takes 
place in a nuclear family with parents equally Sharing child-rearing, and he gives „a 
Specific ability of care" (Johansson, 0p.cit., S. 34, my translation). 

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